U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child
Summary of Substantive Articles
Article 1-Definition of Child
Every person under 18, unless national law grants majority at an earlier age.
Article 2-Freedom from Discrimination
Rights in the Convention to apply to all children without exception, the State to protect children from any form of discrimination or punishment based on family's status, activities or beliefs.
Article 3-Best Interests of Child
The bests interests of the child to prevail in all legal and administrative decisions; the State to ensure the establishment of institutional standards for the care and protection of children.
Article 4-Implementation of Rights
The State to translate the rights in this Convention into actuality.
Article 5-Respect for Parental Responsibility
The State to respect the rights of parents or guardians to provide direction to the child in the exercise of the rights in this Convention.
Article 6-Survival & Development
The child's right to life, the State to ensure the survival and maximum development of the child.
Article 7-Name & Nationality
The right to have and to acquire a nationality, the right to know and be cared for by parents.
Article 8-Preservation of Identity
The right to preserve or re-establish the child's identity (name, nationality and family ties).
Article 9-Parental Care & Non Separation
The right to live with parents unless this is deemed imcompatible with the child's best interest; the right to maintain contact with both parents; the State to provide information when separation results from State action.
Article 10-Family Reunification
The right to leave or enter any country for family reunification and to maintain contact with both parents.
Article 11-Illicit Transfer and Non-Return
The State to combat the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad.
Article 12-Free Expression of Opinion
The child's right to express an opinion in matters affecting the child and to have that opinion heard.
Article 13-Freedom of Information
The right to seek, receive and impart information through any media.
Article 14-Freedom of Thought, Conscience & Religion
The right to determine and pratice any belief; State to respect te rights of parents or guardians to provide direction in the exercise of this right.
Article 15-Freedom of Association
The right to freedom of association and freedom of peaceful assembly.
Article 16-Protection of Privacy
The right to protection from arbitrary or unlawful interference with privacy, family, home or correspondence, or attacks on honor and reputation.
Article 17-Media & Information
The State to ensure access to information and material from a diversity of national and international sources.
Article 18-Parental Responsibilities
The State to recognize the principle that both parents are responsible for the upbringing of their children and that parents or guardians have primary responsibility; the State to assist parents or guardians in this responsibility ad ensure the provision of child care for eligible working parents.
Article 19-Abuse & Neglect
The State to protect children from all forms of abuse, neglect and exploitation by parents or others, and to undertake preventive and treatment programs in this regard.
Article 20-Children without Families
The right to receive special protection and assistance from the State when deprived of family environment and to be provided with alternative care, such as foster placement or Kafala of Islamic Law, adoption or institutional placement.
The State to regulate the process of adoption (including intercountry adoption), where it is permitted.
Article 22-Refugee Children
The State to ensure protection and assistance to children who are refugees or are seeking refugee status, and to cooperate with competent organizations providing such protection and assistance.
Article 23-Disabled Children
The right of disabled children to special care and training designed to help achieve self-reliance and a full and decent life in society.
Article 24-Health Care
The right to the highest attainable standard of health and access to medical services; the State to attempt to diminish infant and child mortality, combat disease and malnutrition, ensure health care for expectant mothers, provide access to health education, develop preventive health care and abolish harmful traditional pratices.
Article 25-Periodic Review
The right of children placed by the State for reasons of care, protection or treatment to have all aspects of that placement reviewed regularly.
Article 26-Social Security
The right, where appropiate, to benefit from social security or insurance.
Article 27-Standard of Living
The right to an adequate standard of living; the State to assist parents who cannot meet this responsibility and to try to recover maintenance for the child from persons having financial responsibility, both within the State and abroad.
The right to education, the State to provide free and compulsory primary education, ensure equal access to secondary and higher education and ensure that school discipline reflects the child's human dignity.
Article 29-Aims of Education
The States Parties' agreement that education be directed at developing the child's personality and talents; preparing the child for responsible life in a free society; developing respect for the child's parents , basic human rights, the natural environment and the child's own cultural and national values and those of others.
Article 30-Children of Minorities
The right of children of minority communities and indigenous populations to enjoy their own culture, pratice their own religion and use their own language.
Article 31-Leisure & Recreation
The right to leisure, play and participate in cultural and artistic activities.
Article 32-Child Labor
The right to be protected from economic exploitation and from engaging in work that constitutes a threat to health, education and development; the State to set minimum ages for employment, regulate conditions of employment and provide sanctions for effective enforcment.
The State to protect children from illegal narcotic and pyschotropic drugs and from involvement in their production and distribution.
Article 34-Sexual Exploitation The State to protect children from sexual exploitation and abuse, including prostitution and involvement in pornography.
Article 35-Sale & Trafficking
The State to prevent the abduction, sale and trafficking of exploitation.
Article 36-Other Exploitation
The State to protect children from all other forms of exploitation.
Article 37-Torture, Capital Punishment and Deprivation of Liberty
The State to protect children from torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, capital punishment or life imprisonment for offenses committed by persons below the age of 18; and unlawful or arbitrary deprivation of liberty. The right of children deprived of liberty to be treated with humanity and respect, to be separated from adults, to maintain contact with family memebers and to have prompt access to legal assistance.
Article 38-Armed Conflict
The State to respect the international humanitarian law, ensure that no child under 15, takes a direct part in hostilities, refrain from recruiting any child under 15 into the armed forces and ensure that all children affected by armed conflict benefit from protection and care.
Article 39-Rehabilitative Care
The State to promote the physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration of child victims of abuse, neglect, exploitation, torture or armed conflicts in an environment which fosters the health,self-respect and dignity of the child.
Article 40-Juvenile Justice
The right of accused children to be treated with dignity. The State to ensure that: no child is accused by reason of acts or omissions not prohibited by law at the time committed; every accused child is informed promptly of the charges, presumed innocent until proven guilty in a prompt and fair trial, receives legal assistance and is not compelled to give testimony or confess guilt, alternatives to institutional care are available.
Article 41-Supremacy of Higher Standards
The standards contained in this Convention not to supercede higher standards contained in national law or other international instruments.